Animal testing

Beagle sat in cage

狗窝俱乐部is opposed to the use of dogs in animal experiments which are conducted for the primary benefit of humans, and has significant concerns over the use of dogs in regulatory toxicity testing. According to Home Office, 2,679 dogs were used in scientific procedures in 2019 in the UK. Some dogs were used in multiple scientific procedures, with a total of 4,227 procedures conducted on dogs in 2019.[1]

涉及涉及狗的4,227个科学程序的60%以上进行了用于人类使用的药物产品的监管检验,其中1%的所有监管程序确定为兽药的发展所需的。[2]The remaining procedures can be attributed to other forms of regulatory testing, incorporating testing of pesticides etc, and fundamental research aimed at improving human and/or animal health.

25 beagles were genetically altered to introduce a ‘harmful phenotype’, this is a genetic alteration which will cause the beagle to be likely to experience, as a consequence of the genetic alteration pain, distress, suffering or lasting harm equivalent to, or higher than that caused by the introduction of a needle in accordance with good veterinary practice.

Key statistics published by the Home Office, July 2020
  • 2,679只狗在2019年在英国使用了科学程序
  • 4,227 scientific procedures were conducted on dogs in 2019 in the UK. The overwhelming majority were performed primarily for human benefit
  • 自2014年以来,17,761只狗已用于26,237个科学程序
有关监管测试的更多信息

Of the 4,107 scientific procedures carried out on dogs in the UK in 2014, just over 70% were carried out for regulatory tests in the development of medicinal products for human use.

是一个涵盖性术语,incorpo监管测试rates a number of different types of tests. In 2014, the majority of the regulatory tests involving dogs, and indeed over 50% of all procedures conducted on dogs, were "repeated dose toxicity" tests.[3]This form of testing is used to determine whether continuous exposure to a substance, i.e. a potential medicinal product, becomes poisonous over a prolonged period.[4]The dogs may be injected with, or fed drugs and chemicals and then observed for signs of adverse (toxic) effects that can include vomiting, internal bleeding, organ damage, seizures and death. These tests commonly last for several months, or longer, and at the end of these experiments, the dogs are euthanised so that autopsies can take place.[5][6][7]

大多数常见的狗用作这些调节试验中的第二种物种,啮齿动物通常是所用的第一个物种。在这些类型的测试中使用两种物种是全球要求。然而,2013年研究质疑在这些第二种测试中使用狗的益处。该研究在同行评审科学期刊上发表,分析了来自2,366名药物的历史数据,该数据被批准用于人类使用。它结束了“这种分析尚未编制的公开的动物毒性研究的最全面的数量数据库,表明狗对人类的有毒反应的高度不一致的预测因子,并且他们可以提供的预测比那些可以获得的预测更好机会 - 或折腾硬币 - 考虑到化合物是否应在人类中进行测试时。“[8]

In light of this research, The Kennel Club would like to see an independent review of whether the use of dogs in second-species testing is still justified or whether more suitable alternatives are available.

8. Bailey, J.; Thew, M.; Balls, M. An analysis of the use of dogs in predicting human toxicology and drug safety. ALTA 2013, 41, 335-350.

狗窝俱乐部的观点

We are strongly opposed to the use of dogs in chemical toxicology and drug safety evaluation conducted primarily for the benefit of humans. Whilst we acknowledge that testing may currently be required by national and international legislation, we believe animal testing should be kept to an absolute minimum and be used only when alternative testing is not possible.

We fund and support the work of FRAME (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments) to carry out research projects on the use of dogs in laboratories, with the aim of developing a scientific strategy to minimise, and eventually eliminate, the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing. In addition,狗窝俱乐部Charitable Trusthas provided project funding towards this aim.

当动物继续用于动物实验中,我们强烈支持3RS(细化,减少和更换)的原则,因为基础上的指导原则是在科学研究中的人文使用的指导原则:

  • 改进:改善科学程序和饲养,以尽量减少潜在的痛苦和痛苦,并在使用动物的情况下改善动物福利是不可避免的
  • Reduction: improving test methods to enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals or more information from the same number of animals
  • Replacement: finding replacements to animal testing e.g. computer modelling

In spite of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, which insists that no animal experiments should be conducted if there is a realistic alternative, evidence suggests more needs to be done to ensure animals are not used in testing unnecessarily.[9][10]To help enable this, more resources are required for the advancement of the 3Rs.

Additionally, improved standards in reporting of animal experiments are required, along with greater transparency of the use of animals in experiments to avoid unnecessary duplication of experiments.[11][12]

While dogs continue to be used in animal experiments, it's essential that appropriately high standards of animal welfare are adhered to in all animal testing establishments and associated breeding facilities.[13][14]

狗窝俱乐部's recommendations to Government

We believe the number of live experiments could be reduced and the welfare of laboratory dogs improved by:

  • the Government commissioning an independent review of whether the benefits derived from using dogs in second-species toxicity tests justify their use, and whether more suitable alternatives are available
  • the Government delivering on its pledge to increase the transparency of animal testing and remove the so-called privacy clause (section 24) from animal testing legislation. This is supported by both the scientific industry and animal welfare campaigners[15a][15b]
  • a requirement for establishments, including breeding facilities, to have a policy to rehome dogs whenever possible and for accurate statistics on rehoming of laboratory animals to be published annually
  • 政府与科www.w88.com学部门和融资机构合作,改善动物检测的报告。要求发布来自动物实验(正面和负面)的所有结果,以避免不必要的重复,以保护真正商业敏感信息的津贴
  • 审查实验室中狗的福利,包括繁殖,运输,住房,营养,健康,处理和安乐死,以确保正在实施所有减少痛苦的努力
  • 增加资金开发动物测试的替代品
你怎么能帮助?

With over 8 million dogs in the UK, the dog-owning population accounts for approximately 25% of the British public, meaning that dog issues can have widespread voting appeal.

保持政治ians interested in canine welfare is to speak to them about your concerns on a particular issue, e.g. dog walking access, dangerous dogs, puppy farming etc., and ask for their help. You can do this via email, a letter or even a meeting.

The key is to keep their mailbags full with dog issues to ensure that as your elected representative, they keep up to date with the issues that are most important to you, their constituent.

Get involved

如果有一个问题,你对你的议会代表写一封信给你的议会代表贷款给我们的许多竞选人员,让他们知道他们如何提供帮助。你的电子邮件和信件不需要很长时间,实际上,随着政治家们非常忙碌的较短。通过这样做,您将扮演您的部门,以保持狗的福利对政治议程。

Our guide to letter writing
在威斯敏斯特(MP),苏格兰议会(MP),威尔士大会成员(AM)或立法议会(MLA)北爱尔兰成员的议员写信给威斯敏斯特(MP),或立法议会(MLA)向北爱尔兰成员提供通知各个政治家有关重要竞选活动,因此能够按下问题更有效地在议会中脱颖而出。

虽然我们知道,只需复制一封信并将其发送关闭,但您的议会代表更容易,如果您写自己的信,您的议会代表更有可能注意。使用下面的指南起草您自己的信件:

[你的房子号码和街道]
[TOWN]
[县]
[邮政编码]

[EMAIL ADDRESS]

[电话号码。]


[NAME OF POLITICIAN]
[议会或议会地址]
[DATE]

DearXXXXXXX,

Paragraph 1: Why you are writing
The first paragraph of your letter should always introduce your concerns to your parliamentary representative. For example:
‘I am writing to you regarding the issue of[INSERT TOPIC],要求您支持肯尼俱乐部的活动......'
(This information can be found on therelevant campaign page of our website.)

第2段:您要更改的内容
Each of the campaign’s pages on The Kennel Club’s website outlines the organisation’s official position and what is being done to try and push for change. This information can act as a guideline for telling your parliamentary representative how existing legislation needs to be amended.

If you are writing to request that your parliamentary representative support The Kennel Club on a specific issue, you may wish to use something along the lines of the following wording as an introduction to the paragraph:

“肯尼俱乐部以英国的成千上万的狗主人来说是一种声音。狗窝俱乐部提出了与狗相关的事宜的广泛专业知识和经验,提出以下......“

…then write a bullet-point list into your letter.

第3段:为什么需要这些变化
提供具有证据的政治家将证明您的担忧是有效的。使用事实和数字来支持您的论点,并描述您可能必须使您的案例更强大的个人经历。

第四段:行动点
Tell your parliamentary representative the line of action that you wish them to take on this matter. This could be taking the matter up with their party, raising the issue in parliament, signing an EDM or supporting a specific Bill. If you are unsure what to write in this paragraph,contact The Kennel Club's public affairs team咨询。

第5段:签约
Request a reply. You may also wish to arrange a face-to-face meeting to discuss the issue further. Then all that is left to do is sign off:

'我期待着您的回音。
Yours sincerely,
[插入你的名字]'

收到回复后
为了帮助我们让我们了解哪些政客所知/支持我们的活动,请复印或总结您收到的回复并将其发送给我们通过电子邮件或者邮寄至:伦溪俱乐部公共事务,1-5克里斯街,皮卡迪利,伦敦,W1J 8ab。

如果您的议会代表已同意与您达访,请阅读我们的指南,以与下面的议会代表成功召开会议。
Our guide to a successful meeting with parliamentary representatives
Attending the surgery of your Member of Parliament at Westminster (MP), Member of Scottish Parliament (MSP), Welsh Assembly Member (AM), or Northern Ireland Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) will be the most powerful way of making them aware of pressing canine issues, enabling them to be taken up in parliament much more efficiently.

Most parliamentary representatives hold surgeries where constituents can meet them face to face. Sometimes notices of surgeries appear in local newspapers, but if not you can contact your MP, MSP, AM or MLA’s office directly to book your appointment in advance.

成功的五个步骤

  1. Preparation is key.Make a list of questions/topic areas that you want to discuss with your parliamentary representative. Go armed with facts and figures to support your argument. You should also take a notepad and pen to write down any important points for reference
  2. Be direct.介绍自己,你在那里讨论。说明您的疑虑,请反驳他们可能产生的任何反对点。不要变得情绪化 - 你将通过平静和合理的平静和合理作出更强的争论
  3. Listen and respond constructively.一旦您完成了职位,请允许您的MP / MSP / AM / MLA向您展示他/她/她。仔细聆听协议和分歧的领域,始终是积极的,并试图提出将探讨他们个人观点而不是党的问题
  4. Be aware of time.Stick to the issue and try not to get sidetracked into general debate - you will have a limited amount of time with him/her and it is important to make sure you get across all the points you wish to make
  5. At the end of the meeting and beyond…感谢他们的会议,总结您的讨论和概述您可以前进的步骤。www.w88.com让他们知道他们可以在将来与您联系,进一步讨论该问题。
Follow up the meeting by writing a thank you letter, summarising your visit and any actions that your MP/MSP/AM/MLA has offered to take. You could also contact them again after a month to see what progress has been made. This will also help to keep the issue fresh in their mind.

有关详细信息或建议,请在020 7518 1020或通过电子邮件.
Contact your parliamentary representative